In this blog we will discuss, about of Computer Network Communication, history of Computer Network and why we need for Computer Network.
|Table of Contents|
2. Introduction of Computer Network
3. Need for Computer Networks
4. History of the Computer Networks (ARPANET)
Introduction of Computer Network Communication
Network is a collection of Computers connected to each other. It allows the computers to communicate with each other and share resources which include information, software and peripheral devices such as printers, scanners.
Now a days, computer network communication are used is a wider range. All the organizations are using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day-to-day work. It is necessary to connect them which form network.
The computer network communication are classified into different types according to the network size. When Computers communicate with each other, they follow certain specific formats and rules.
These formats and rules are explained by the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. The OSI model is conceptual and has seven layers and each layer is having its own functions.
A Network selection criterion forms the basics of a network, science it helps to select a secure and efficient network. The criterion explains network performance improvement techniques and necessity of reliable network. Various standard organizations are used for network communication to maintain consistency.
Introduction to Computer Networks
Computer network is an interconnection of two or more computers and peripherals such as printers and faxes. Computer Network allows the user to share and transfer information using cables or modems within a network.
Need for Computer Networks
Computer network allows the user to share data with other users in a network, for example, a company having several computers which are connected in a network. Computer network will enable the users to share files and folders and get synchronized with users.
Computer Network also allows the user to share resources such as printers and faxes. Printer can be installed on one computer and can be accessed by other users in a network. By this, the need of installing printers on individual computes is avoided and it results in cost-effectiveness.
Computer network also allows the user to communicate with each other using instant messaging tools to share ideas, files or solve queries. The user can also setup a central system wherein common files and folders which are frequently used by all the users can be stored.
All the users within the network can easily access those files. Instead of taking backups from individual computer, the user can take data backup from the central system. This helps in reducing the time of taking backup.
If an organization you have several computers but just one phone line, a network makes it easier to use the internet. Several computers can share one modem to use the same Internet connection. Otherwise, you can even install a dedicated high-speed Internet Connection such as a cable modem for your network.
It is possible to add new systems or servers to an exiting network easily. Thus, the computer network provides scalability. It is also reliable to use a network as it uses mirroring and redundancy.
History of the Computer Network (ARPANET)
Earlier, Computers were only used as stand-alone machine. Computer networks were created to establish a communication link between different users within an organization. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed Advanced Research Projects Agency network (ARPANET) for United State Department of Defense. It was the first network in the world.
Small computers were used to manage communication link. These small computers were connected to large mainframe computers. These large computers were connected to the ARPANET.
The purpose of ARPANET was that each computer would be connected to a specialized computer, called as Interface Message Processors (IMP). The IMPS perform the store and forward of data and were connected to each other using modems.
In 1969, the first ARPANET link was established between the IMP nodes at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Then Douglas Engelbart’s hypertext-project computer at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) was connected to IMP node.
By the end of the year, the computer at the University of California, Santa Barbara (USCB) and the University of Utah were connected to the Network. All the computers in the network were using different operating systems and were able to communicate with each other across the network.
ARPANET was originally developed for providing long- distance (remote) computing. Remote computing was done by utility program known as Telnet which allows the user on one computer to connect to another computer on a network.
Telnet service can be used for debate, discussion and news sharing by the news or discussion groups. Still the remote computing is considered as an effective and useful service of the ARPANET.
File transfer is another service provided by ARPANET. It allows the users to access remote computer and retrieve programs or data. The file transfer Protocol (FTP) is utility software which is used for uploading and downloading files. Using FTP, the directories or folders on remote computers can be easily accessed and files can be transferred between computers.
In 1970’s, the research institutes and laboratories supported by the Department of Defense were also included in ARPANET, in various part of USA.
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