TCP IP Definition

In this blog we will discuss about TCP/IP , Benefits and Features of TCP/IP.

Another item that we need to configure before we can connect a Windows 10 machine to the domain is the protocol that will allow the Windows 10 machine to communicate with other machines.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the most commonly used network protocol. It is actually a suite of protocols that have evolved into the industry standard for network, internetwork, and Internet connectivity.

As I explained earlier in this chapter, when I teach my Microsoft Windows classes (both server and client classes) I like to use the following example for TCP/IP. Don’t think of TCP/IP as IP addresses, think of them as telephone numbers.

That’s right, think of them as telephone numbers. When you need to contact a server or a website, you call its telephone number (TCP/IP).

Just like telephone numbers, you may need to call Information to get someone’s telephone number. Well, we have a form of information on our networks also. We call it Domain Name Service (DNS) servers. That’s all DNS does. Its turns a name into a telephone number (name resolution). So when you type in www.willpanek.com , DNS turns willpanek.com into a TCP/IP number so that you can make your call to my website.

Now just as with telephone numbers, there must be some device that acts like the telephone company that issues us our telephone numbers. Well there is, and it’s called a Dynamic Host Confi guration Protocol (DHCP) server. DHCP gives your users a telephone (TCP/IP) number.

If you think of TCP/IP numbers as telephone numbers, I think it makes it much easier for anyone to understand why we use them and how they work.

Note: The main protocols providing basic TCP/IP services include Internet Protocol (IP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol
(UDP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

Benefits and Features of TCP/IP:

TCP/IP as a protocol suite was accepted as an industry standard in the 1980s and continues to be the primary inter networking protocol today. For a default installation of Windows 10, IPv4 and IPv6 are both installed by default. TCP/IP has the following benefits:

  • TCP/IP is the most common protocol and is supported by almost all network operating systems. It is the required protocol for Internet access.
  • TCP/IP is dependable and scalable for use in small and large networks.
  • Support is provided for connectivity across interconnected networks, independent of the operating systems being used at the upper end of the OSI model or the physical components at the lower end of the OSI model.
  • TCP/IP provides standard routing services for moving packets over interconnected network segments. Dividing networks into multiple subnet works (or sunsets) optimizes network traffic and facilitates network management.
  • TCP/IP is designed to provide data reliability by providing a connection at the Transport layer and verifying that each data segment is received and passed to the application requiring the data by retransmitting lost information.
  • TCP/IP allows for the classification of data in regard to its importance with Quality of Service. This allows important time-sensitive streams of data, such as Voice over IP, to get preferential treatment.
  • TCP/IP is designed to be fault tolerant. It is able to dynamically reroute packets if network links become unavailable, assuming alternate paths exist.
  • Applications can provide services such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) for TCP/IP configuration and Domain Name Service (DNS) for hostname-to- IP-address resolution.
  • Windows 10 continues to support Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) used byn small, local-connection-only networks without a DHCP server to allow Windows 10 to automatically assign an IP address to itself.
  • Support for NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) is included in Windows 10. NetBIOS is a software specification used for identifying computer resources by name as opposed to IP address. We still use TCP/IP as the network protocol, so we map the NetBIOS name to an IP address.
  • The inclusion of Alternate IP Configuration allows users to have a static and a DHCPassigned IP address mapped to a single network adapter. This feature supports mobile users who roam between different network segments.
  • IPv6 incorporates a much larger address space compared to IPv4 and, more important, incorporates many of the additional features of TCP/IP into a standardized protocol. This is important because a vendor that claims to support TCP/IP only has to support the 1980s version and may not support additional features such as Internet Protocol Security (IPSec). IPv6 as a standard includes these features, allowing a more robust network protocol.

Several of the features of TCP/IP included with Windows 10 are as follows:

  • Allows a common structure for network communications across a wide variety of hardware and operating systems and a lot of applications that are specifically written to configure and control it.
  • TCP/IP connectivity tools allowing access to a variety of hosts across a TCP/IP network. TCP/IP tools in Windows 10 include clients for HTTP, FTP, TFTP, Telnet, Finger, and so forth. Server components for the tools are available to install as well.
  • Inclusion of a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent that can be used to monitor performance and resource use of a TCP/IP host, server, or network hardware devices.
  • TCP/IP management and diagnostic tools for maintenance and diagnostic support. TCP/IP management and diagnostic commands include ipconfig, arp, ping, nbtstat, netsh, route, nslookup, tracert, and pathping.
  • Support for TCP/IP network printing, enabling you to print to networked print devices.
  • Logical and physical multi homing, enabling multiple IP addresses on a single computer for single or multiple network adapters. Multiple network adapters installed on a single computer are normally associated with routing for inter network connectivity.
  • Support for internal IP routing, which enables a Windows 10 computer to route packets among multiple network adapters installed in one machine.
  • Support for virtual private networks, which enable you to transmit data securely across a public network via encapsulated and encrypted packets.

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